Te Ao Waipiro - Maori and Alcohol in 1995
Foreword by the Ministry of Maori Affairs
Summary of findings
This report presents information collected from Maori respondents who participated in a national survey of drinking patterns and problems, and host responsibility. The survey was conducted by the Alcohol & Public Health Research Unit and funded by the Alcohol Advisory Council of New Zealand and the Health Research Council of New Zealand. Te Whanau o Waipareira Trust generously provided funding for the printing of this report.
This survey of 4232 people aged 14 to 65 years was conducted between September and December 1995. Twelve percent of respondents (516) identified themselves as Maori or part Maori. This proportion was similar to Statistics New Zealand estimates at the time of the survey, although Maori males were underrepresented in the sample (41%).
The report focuses on age differences for males and females, as age and gender are the two personal characteristics that are the most important determinants of drinking patterns and alcohol-related problems. Significant differences by levels of urbanisation and also commented on. Although it was possible to analyse the survey data by regional variation, the Maori sample was not large enough for any significant regional differences to emerge.
The full report, Dacey, B. Te Ao Waipiro: Maori and alcohol in 1995, was published in August 1997.
- Brendon Dacey, Allan Wyllie, Jia-Fang Zhang, Margaret Millard, and the CATI team
- Peer review: Internal
Kimihia te po Search the darkness Rangahaua te po Examine the night Meinga kia puta ko Mohiohio In order that knowledge may appear Ko Maherehere and form Tihei Mauriora!
From the Office of the Minister of Maori Affairs
It is with pleasure that I write the foreword to such a significant document as Te Ao Waipiro. The information within this report attacks the past legacy of insufficient data on Maori alcohol consumption, and is able to provide direction for strategic responses from health promoters, policy analysts and just as importantly service providers.
As a quantitative analysis of data, Te Ao Waipiro will be useful for a number of Maori and non-Maori people working in the field of alcohol. With practical information we can ensure that alcohol misuse and abuse is challenged at a variety of levels. Alcohol and the impact that it has had on Maori society is quoted in a range of negative statistics, however there is also a dearth of adequate response strategies for kaimahi in the field.
The ability to effectively respond to the impact that alcohol is having upon Maori society are many and varied. It is my fervent hope that we can address some of these issues with information contained in this document. For example, the places where Maori drink is important because it provides insight into responsive strategies such as Host Responsibility or the alternative Maori program Mana Manaaki based in Tauranga which has been operating for approximately the past six years. Significant also is the role that policies can play in re-orienting the alcohol environment so that Maori people are able to enjoy their time without the consequences of alcohol abuse and misuse.
Gone are the days of rhetoric. Te Ao Waipiro is an opportunity to be proactive, and I certainly wouldnt have it any other way.
- The Honourable Tau Henare
- Minister of Maori Affairs
Summary of Findings
Consumption Changes in drinking Drinking patterns Alcohol related problems Location of drinking Comparisons with the general population
Between September and December 1995, data were collected from 516 Maori as part of a national survey of 4232 people aged 14 to 65 years, to measure drinking patterns, alcohol-related problems and other alcohol-related issues.
Self-definition was used to ascertain the ethnicity of respondents, using the following questions:
- 1. Could you please tell me which ethnic group you belong to:
- NZ Maori
- Pacific Island
- NZ European
- or something else that I can key in
- Is there any other ethnic group you belong to?
The sample was randomly selected from throughout Aotearoa and interviewed using the Alcohol & Public Health Research Units CATI (computer assisted telephone interviewing) system. The response rate for the survey was 76%.
- Eighty three percent of the Maori men and 78% of the Maori women were drinkers.
- Seventy three percent of the alcohol was consumed by men.
- The median annual consumption reported by male drinkers was 9.2 litres of absolute alcohol. This is equivalent to 613 cans of beer per year, or almost a dozen cans per week. (Survey data tend to under-report consumption.)
- The 1.7 litre median reported by women drinkers is equivalent to 113 cans of beer or glasses of wine per year, or two cans/glasses per week.
- Although men aged 14 to 29 constituted about quarter of the Maori population aged 14 to 65, they drank around half the alcohol.
- For men drinkers the median frequency of drinking was about two times per week (94 occasions per year) while for women drinkers it was about once per fortnight (29 occasions per year).
- Six per cent of drinkers were drinking at least once per day.
- For men, the median quantity consumed on a typical drinking occasion was 86ml of alcohol, equivalent to almost six cans of beer. For women it was 50ml, equivalent to more than three cans of beer or glasses of wine.
- When asked how often they consumed six or more 15ml drinks, 86% of men drinkers stated they did so at least once per year, 52% at least monthly and 30% at least weekly.
- When women drinkers were asked how often they consumed four or more 15ml drinks, 72% said they did so at least annually, 31% at least monthly and 14% at least weekly.
- Forty three percent of male drinkers and 22% of female drinkers drank enough to feel drunk at least once per month.
- Men accounted for 71% of the reports of feeling drunk.
Location of drinking
- Most drinkers (97%) drank at places other than their own home at some time during the previous year.
- Around 40% of alcohol was consumed in private homes. Men consumed 20% in their own homes and 19% in others homes, while for women the figures were 29% and 15%.
- Pubs/hotels/taverns/bars, nightclubs, sports clubs and other clubs accounted for another 40% of both mens and womens drinking.
- The locations in which the largest typical quantities were consumed by men were pubs/hotels/taverns, nightclubs, sports clubs, sports events/racing, outdoor public places and others homes. At these locations they typically drank the equivalent of about six cans of beer.
- Women typically drank the equivalent of about four cans of beer or glasses of wine at pubs/hotels/taverns, nightclubs, sports clubs and others homes.
- Pubs/hotels/taverns/bars, nightclubs, sports clubs and other clubs were frequently mentioned as usual locations for drinking larger quantities for those who drank larger quantities at least monthly (mentioned by 50% of men and 42% of women). Own homes (35% of men and 42% of women) and others homes (30% of men and 38% of women) were also frequently mentioned by this group.
Changes in drinking
- Compared to a year ago, half of the drinkers said they were drinking less and 20% said they were drinking more.
- Concerns about drinking and driving, health and fitness were most often mentioned as reasons for decreasing drinking.
- Alcohol being served at more of the social occasions attended was the most frequently mentioned reason for increased drinking. Other frequently mentioned reasons were increasing acceptability of drinking alcohol in a wide range of places and having more money to spend on alcohol.
- Eighteen percent of drinkers felt they were drinking more than they were happy with.
- Men (24%) were more likely than women (14%) to feel they were drinking more than they were happy with.
- People were asked about the occurrence of harmful effects from their own drinking, in five areas of their lives (home life, friendships or social life, health, work or work opportunities and financial position). Forty two percent of men and over a quarter of women (27%) reported some level of harmful effect in the previous 12 months in at least one of these areas.
- One in five men aged 14 to 29 years felt their drinking was having a large or medium harmful effect on their health, with similar proportions mentioning their home life and financial position.
- Respondents were asked whether they had experienced specific problems in the previous 12 months as a result of their own drinking. Thirty seven percent of men and 21% of women had experienced at least three of the 14 problems asked about.
- 32% of men and 22% of women had at least once in the past year woken the day after drinking unable to remember events or their actions while drinking.
- 24% of men and 13% of women had had a serious argument after drinking.
- 20% of men and 13% of women had felt ashamed of things they did while drinking.
- Men, who consumed 73% of the alcohol, accounted for 70% of the problems arising from peoples own drinking while women, who consumed 27% of the alcohol accounted for 30% of the problems.
- The six most commonly reported problems from peoples own drinking were:
- - feeling the effects of alcohol after drinking the night before;
- - being unable to remember actions or events the day after drinking;
- - feeling the effects of alcohol while at work, study or doing household duties;
- - being involved in a serious argument after drinking;
- - feeling ashamed of something done while drinking;
- - getting drunk when there was an important reason to stay sober
- 37% of male drinkers had driven in the previous 12 months when they had probably had too much to drink.
- Over half of both men (51%) and women (54%) reported that others drinking had had a harmful effect in at least one of the three areas of their lives they were asked about (home life, friendships or social life, and financial position).
- More women (40%) reported a large or medium harmful effect in at least one area from others drinking than men (29%).
- In the previous 12 months 15% of men and 12% of women had been physically assaulted at least once by someone who had been drinking.
- 14% of women and 7% of men stated that they had been sexually harassed at least once by someone who had been drinking, in the previous 12 months. This represents approximately 24,000 Maori men and 19,500 Maori women being assaulted at least once each year.
- In the previous 12 months around half (51%) of the sample had been seriously concerned or worried about the drinking of friends, relatives or acquaintances.
- Questions were asked relating to responsible hosting practices, especially at licensed premises. The majority of people who drank at pubs, nightclubs and sports clubs thought that drunks would be served at these premises.
- Although some 14 to 19 year olds were being refused entry or alcohol in licensed premises, the rate of refusals was low.
- 38% of 14 to 19 year olds had purchased takeaway alcohol in the previous 12 months and they seldom had their attempts refused.
- Police were not seen very often at licensed drinking locations, with their presence being lowest in sports clubs.
Comparisons between the Maori and general population data
The following is a list of some of the main differences between the Maori data and the general population (GP) data (this includes the Maori data) collected from the survey:
- There were fewer drinkers amongst the Maori sample.
- The median annual volume of consumption for Maori males was higher than for the GP males, while for females it was lower.
- The median frequency of drinking amongst Maori was much lower compared to the GP (about half), especially for women.
- The median quantity of alcohol consumed on an occasion was much higher amongst Maori (almost 200%) than for the GP, with higher levels of drinking larger quantities (six drinks for men and four drinks for women).
- Maori drank less in their own homes and in restaurants compared to the GP.
Changes in drinking
- There were bigger proportions of Maori drinking larger quantities both more often and less often.
- Most of the reasons for drinking less were mentioned more often by Maori, with economic reasons having greater significance.
- The cheaper cost of alcohol played a more significant part for those Maori drinking more, as did reasons relating to increased accessibility of alcohol.
- The reporting of problems experienced as a result of own drinking was higher amongst the Maori sample.
- The extent of problems reported as a result of others drinking was higher amongst the Maori sample, with more reported assaults, motor vehicle crashes and greater levels of concern about the drinking of others.
- Host Responsibility
- More Maori thought that drunks would be served at their friends homes.
- There were higher levels of refusal to enter and buy at nightclubs reported by Maori aged 14 to 19.
Brothers Web Design